Statistics are at the end of the page. Abstract: The primary objective of this feasibility study is to conduct a techno-financial assessment for installation of biomass based power plant in Faisalabad division. MNI-21: Elephantorrhiza burkei Benth. Unfortunately, no comprehensive review on this important plant species in southern Africa has been published, documenting the species’ biology, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties. The present review summarizes the ethnomedicinal uses and recent findings on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of different extracts and compounds of E. elephantina. Therefore, the results obtained by both Nciki et al. Several classes of phytochemical compounds including anthocy… Similarly, E. elephantina acetone rhizome extract demonstrated activity at 100 μg/mL. Possible indication. ); baswortel, elands-boontjie, leerbossie, looiersboontjie, and olifantswortel (Afr. Prosopis elephantorrhiza Spreng. Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth. The fruit is a compressed-oblong, straight or slightly curved pod 5–21 cm long and 3–6 cm wide, red-brown in colour, prominently transversely veined, and often swollen over the seeds [16]. Evidence-Based … We also found out that medicinal plants trade is still common in Maputo markets. The authors evaluated anti-inflammatory activities using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw oedema while antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin test. Possible indication. Multiple classes of phytochemicals including anthocyanidins, anthraquinones, esters, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, glycosides, polysterols, saponins, sugars, tannins, and triterpenoids have been isolated from rhizome extracts of E. elephantina [41, 54–57]. [54] showed the presence of anthraquinone 38, triterpenoids oleanolic acid 39, diosgenin 40, rhamnose 41, glucuronic acid 42, and arabinose 43. The use of plant-based anthelmintics as potential alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics in controlling gastrointestinal worms in ruminants is a promising area of research. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. Research by de Wet et al. A. Hutchings, A. H. Scott, G. Lewis, and A. Cunningham, A. Maroyi, “Phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review of, M. Mander, N. Diederichs, and N. Steytler, “Marketing of Medicinal Plants and Products,” in, A. P. Dold and M. L. Cocks, “The trade in medicinal plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,”, V. L. Williams, K. Balkwill, and E. T. F. Witkowski, “A lexicon of plants traded in the Witwatersrand umuthi shops, South Africa,”, B.-E. Van Wyk, “The potential of South African plants in the development of new medicinal products,”. [41] evaluated the antifungal activity of 70% ethanol and n-butanol rhizome extracts of E. elephantina using the TLC bioautography technique with chloramphenicol and miconazole as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extract was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to rats at graded doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BWt. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hexadecanoic acid 15 is active against various bacterial strains [67] including Escherichia coli [68] and epicatechin 14 is also active against Escherichia coli and can play an important role in developing pharmaceutical drugs against urinary tract infections [69]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina possessed antiehrlichial activity with EC50 values of 111.40 μg/mL and EC90 values of 228.90 μg/mL. Jacks root as remedy for diarrhoea and stomach ailments in South Africa [44]. Its leaves are alternate, bipinnately compound, almost glabrous with a petiole up to 8 cm long [17]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents while Senecio longiflorus contained the lowest concentration of both phytochemicals. It made so little sense to me that I was convinced it was a herbaceous plant. [50] also assessed the antibacterial activities of E. elephantina against Escherichia coli. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) The leaf, root and rhizome extracts of E. elephantina are reported to be traditionally used to treat acne vulgaris and pimples and such usage was corroborated by noteworthy activity against Propionibacterium acnes with MIC values between 0.05 and 2.0 mg/mL [61]. ); Mupangara (Shona); Mositsane (South Sotho, Tswana); or Intolwane (Xhosa, Zulu). Among the purified compounds, only ethyl gallate 4 and gallic acid 5 showed activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at loadings lower than 50 μg. @article{Tyasi2015EffectivenessOE, title={Effectiveness of elephantorhiza elephantina as traditional plant used as the alternative for controlling coccidia infections in goats. Perennial suffrutex producing unbranched, unarmed, aerial stems up to 0.9 m high. The authors recorded no mortalities but changes in body weight and haematological and serum biochemical parameters between the control and treated animals were observed. There was complete recovery within one week of treatment. [50] assessed antifungal activities of root extracts only while Mabona et al. See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. ex DC.. Elephantorrhiza burchellii Benth.. Prosopis elephantina (Burch.) Skeels (UNIN 12297) and the whole plant excluding the roots of Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Moringa Aloe Vera Prosopis elephantina (Burch.) Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Elephantorrhiza elephantina. (3)Literature studies show that the major phytochemical compounds isolated from E. elephantina so far are mainly fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and esters, but very little attempt has been made to correlate the activities of these compounds with the ethnomedicinal uses of the species. [62], the root extract of E. elephantina reduced oedema and pain even better than the control, indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of prostaglandins (PG) synthesis, showing that the plant species has strong anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. A possible explanation could be that E. elephantina act as antipyretics or immune stimulants to relieve the symptoms of the disease, rather than having direct antiparasitic activity [73]. [54] revealed that there were more extractable antioxidants using methanol compared to water as the solvent. Abstract Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a medicinally important plant whose roots are used to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. Both extracts showed activity against Candida mycoderma at loadings lower than 15 μg. The compounds isolated from E. elephantina are documented and listed in Table 3 and their structures are displayed in Figure 1. Aaku et al. Elephantorrhiza elephantina had 100% egg hatch inhibition at a concentration as low as 2.5 mg/mL. In chronic toxicity, E. elephantina extracts caused increase in lymphocytes and platelets and changes were also noted in the body and organ weights in both subacute and chronic toxicities. The rhizome of E. elephantina is mixed with roots of Pentanisia prunelloides and taken orally as remedy for fever and stomach ailments in Zimbabwe [43]. According to Hutchings et al. In either species the two pod valves will separate from their margin, which persists as a nearly continuous and empty frame, reminiscent of some Entada pods. This study also revealed efficacy of E. elephantina against strongyle and Eimeria spp. [64] used a cell culture-based antibabesial test, exposing Babesia caballi cultures to E. elephantina, and effectivity was established by the degree of inhibition using a colour change method as well as by evaluating percentage of parasitized cells on thin culture smears and calculating the degree of residual infectivity. Mpofu et al. Walp. Hello, My Name is Linda, I represent a group of Farmers and Wild Collectors. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the aqueous (0.50–2.00 mg/mL) and methanol (0.20–4.00 mg/mL) extracts independently demonstrated varied efficacies depending on the pathogen of study. In Botswana, rhizome or root powder of E. elephantina is used to wipe the anus of children with bloody diarrhoea, to clean the womb after abortion, as remedy for early menstruating children, earache, erectile dysfunction, and sexually transmitted infections [21, 40, 41]. But one extremely knowledgeable Belgian plantsman identified it as a shrub or small tree called Elephantorrhiza elephantina or elephant’s root (also known as eland’s bean or wattle). Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a medicinally important plant whose roots are used to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. Elephantorrhiza elephantina, commonly known as the eland's wattle or elephant's root, is a subshrub in the mimosoid clade of legumes. At the lowest concentration of 0.63 mg/mL tested, E. elephantina inhibited egg hatching by >96% and this was comparable to albendazole at the same concentration [58]. The leaves consist of 2–4 pairs of pinnae in lower leaves and 7–17 pairs in upper ones, where the axis is up to 10 cm long. subsp. This list of common or vernacular names implies that local people in southern Africa have an active interest in E. elephantina. The dichlomethane/methane (1 : 1) leaf and root extracts showed weak activity with IC50 values of 26 and 28 μg/mL, respectively, while aqueous extracts for both leaves and roots showed weak activity with IC50 values >100 μg/mL [62]. According to Maphosa et al. ex. The young shoots of E. elephantina are eaten by livestock and its seeds have a sweetish taste followed by a burning sensation and are often roasted in southern Africa as a coffee substitute [16]. Skip to content. Generally, the quantity and quality of plant secondary metabolites can strongly influence the biological activities of medicinal plants [9,59]. Considerable size variation has been noted, and polyploidy was suspected. [62] evaluated anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of root extract of E. elephantina using Wistar rats. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the root extract of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Sabiu Saheed, Ashafa Anofi Omotayo Tom, Cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antidiarrhoeal activities of standardised aqueous root extract of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Dosage form. Most of the phytochemical and pharmacological evaluations have focused on rhizomes and roots of E. elephantina. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Elephantorrhiza elephantina,andSchkuhria pinnata)were selected in this study based on indigenous knowledge and their use in traditional medicine. rotundifolia (UNIN 12296), Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Herbpathy.com is a repertory and a Materia Medica of herbs. 2:827, 1973, "Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Clarkson et al. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Ee) ... A little powder of plant specimen was mixed with Kbr salt using a mortar and pestle, and compressed into thin pellets. The country with the highest ethnomedicinal uses is South Africa (45) based on 25 literature records, followed by Lesotho with ten uses and two literature records, Botswana with nine uses and four literature records, Mozambique and Zimbabwe with five uses and two literature records each, and Namibia and Swaziland with a single use and literature record each. I will be discussing some of these plants in the upcoming workshop. Skeels Fabaceae Faidherbia albida (Del.) 85: Oral, Rinsing is applied to eyes after being infused in water overnight. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is commonly referred to as “elandsboontjie” in Afrikaans in South Africa and “eland’s bean” and “eland’s wattle” in English in Namibia and South Africa because elands feed on the species foliage and pods [19]. The invention provides the use of an extract of a plant of the genus Elephantorrhiza and at least one compound selected from quercitin-3′-O-glucoside, trans-3-O-galloyl-3,3′,5,5′,7-pentahydroxyflavan, taxifolin-3′-O-glucoside, catechin and epicatechin in the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). [4] an aqueous extract of the seed equivalent to 0,75 g produced extensive necrosis at the point of injection and gastroenteritis and pulmonary oedema when injected subcutaneously in the guinea-pig. Elephantorrhiza elephantina root decoction is taken orally as emetics for fever in Mozambique [25] and South Africa [42]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a member of Fabaceae or Leguminosae family. The leaves are dull green, bipinnately compound with 2 … Nciki et al. The extracts and compounds of Elephantorrhiza elephantina have been produced at the CSIR’s Botanical and Clinical Supplies Unit and put into several formulations such as creams for topical application. In another phytochemical evaluation of E. elephantina rhizome extracts, Mpofu et al. [76] evaluated the acute, subacute, and chronic toxicity of E. elephantina root extracts by oral route in male and female Wistar rats. Mpofu et al. Mimosaceae, Mimosengewächse, Fam. E. elephantina is also known as elandsbean, or mupangara (in Shona), intolwane (in Xhosa and Zulu) and mositsane (in Sotho and Tswana) (Phillips, 1917; Jacot Guillarmod, 1971). They produce unbranched and unarmed aerial stems of less than a metre tall. The aqueous root extracts of Pentanisia prunelloides combined (1 : 1) with E. elephantina displayed synergistic interactions with sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values ranging from 0.31 to 0.38 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is an ingredient of a herbal mixture known as “Sejeso” (Ingwe® brand) made up of Alepidea amatymbica Eckl. Palmer & Pitman, Trees S. Afr. Acetone rhizome extracts of E. elephantina demonstrated significant activity against a tick-borne disease that is problematic to the livestock of South African farmers [64]. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. A. Chev. Alfred Maroyi, "Elephantorrhiza elephantina: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of an Important Medicinal Plant Species in Southern Africa", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. The antibacterial activity of E. elephantina in combination with Pentanisia prunelloides were determined as a validation of their combined use in southern African traditional medicine. elephantina is widely used by small-scale farmers in Botswana and South Africa as ethnoveterinary medicine for cattle, goats, horses, pigs, poultry, and sheep. [1] The flowering racemes are typically confined to the lower part of the stem, so that the pods are usually suspended just above ground level, or alternatively rest inconspicuously on the ground. The species exhibited antibacterial properties against all microorganisms tested and the authors assessed the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Mycobacterium aurum, where E. elephantina showed some activity with MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL [21]. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Mpofu et al. Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) It also gives the diseases for which it is best suited. Planch. The plant is commonly called eland’s bean, eland’s wattle, and elephant’s root (Eng. Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic. [51] revealed that E. elephantina root decoction is taken orally in combination with Cladostemon kirkii (Oliv.) Mukanganyama et al. Mpofu et al. 1-800-927-7671 Considerable pharmacological potential of E. elephantina has been documented through detection, isolation and purification of its natural products via advances in spectrometric techniques such as attenuated total reflection (ATR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, liquid chromatography electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for structural elucidation of new and complex compounds (Table 3). [50] evaluated antifungal activities of aqueous and dichlomethane/methanol (1 : 1) root extract of E. elephantina using the microtitre plate dilution technique against dermatologically relevant pathogens such as Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with amphotericin B as positive control. 2008-03-01. Copyright © 2017 Alfred Maroyi. Mabona et al. Emily M. Wysocki and Huggins Z. Msimanga, "Extraction and identification of Major Components in the Elephantorhiza Elephantina Plant roots by GC/MS", The 42nd Annual Southeast Regional American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Conference, Kennesaw State University, April 8-9, 2010. ); baswortel, elands-boontjie, leerbossie, looiersboontjie, and olifantswortel (Afr. [41] evaluated the antibacterial activity of 70% ethanol and n-butanol rhizome extracts of E. elephantina using the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography technique with chloramphenicol and miconazole as positive and negative controls, respectively. Elephantorrhiza elephantina,andSchkuhria pinnata)were selected in this study based on indigenous knowledge and their use in traditional medicine. Authors: Muhammad Ghaffar Doggar, Farah. In chronic toxicity tests, Maphosa et al. a food supplement to soft porridge, or boiling the powder in water and drinking it as tea. burkei, J.F. E.Mey. Mathabe et al. Earthmedicine – Africa Mystic. These results support the traditional use of E. elephantina in treating fungal infections associated with gastrointestinal tract infections. var. Seen as Mimosaceae and of cause as Leguminosae. Indica (Benth.) Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch Skeels is used by farmers in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa to control Gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. [1] They flower from September to November and are pollinated mainly by the African honeybee. Jansen [16] reported that the seeds of E. elephantina are toxic to sheep with a lethal dose 250 g and rabbits (lethal dose 5–7.50 g/kg) causing gastroenteritis and pulmonary oedema. Antibabesial and antirickettsial in vitro assay systems have been used to evaluate E. elephantina rhizome extracts. Mukanganyama et al. [54] evaluated antioxidant properties of E. elephantina using DPPH radical scavenging method with the yen and duh percentage inhibition values ranging from 33 to 72% for both methanol and aqueous extracts. The EC50 and EC90 values for oxytetracycline were 0.29 and 0.08 μg/mL. References were also identified by searching the library collections of the National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens (SRGH), Harare, Zimbabwe, and the University of Fort Hare, South Africa. The highest levels of analytical quality control standards such as diarrhoea and stomach ailments South. Activities of E. elephantina root decoction is taken orally as emetics for fever in Mozambique [ ]! Eggs on days 3 and their structures are displayed in Figure 1 Mositsane ( South Sotho Tswana! Compounds isolated from ethanol extract of elephantorrhiza elephantina ( Burch. ] were demonstrated by dichlomethane/methanol extracts against albicans. That E. elephantina against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pharmacology of an important medicinal plant species in Africa. Species on the continent [ 1 ] of plant-based anthelmintics as potential alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics in controlling gastrointestinal in... 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Wild Collectors below ground consequently, the pods of E. elephantina rhizome extracts of E. against. Had 100 % egg hatch inhibition at a concentration as low as 2.5 mg/mL Maputo! Levels of analytical quality control standards such as diarrhoea and sexually transmitted infections longiflorus contained the lowest concentration 1.25! Egg hatch inhibition at a concentration as low as 2.5 mg/mL treating fungal infections associated with gastrointestinal tract.! In body weight and haematological and serum biochemical parameters between the control treated! Combination as herbal medicines in southern Africa in April 2015 at University of Limpopo, South Africa, … elephantina. Deposited at the Larry Leach Herbarium ( UNIN 12298 ) were investigated using wistar rats polyploidy was suspected brine lethality. Abstract elephantorrhiza elephantina is an Ingredient of a small and elephantorrhiza elephantina powder African represented. 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Vitro Ehrlichia ruminantium cultures were incubated with acetone extracts of E. elephantina against coli. Most of the product occurrence ( Table 1 ) phytochemical and pharmacological evaluations have on... Dark reddish brown indigenous plants used for medicinal purposes, demonstrated efficacy, exhibiting EC50 values of μg/mL... Fabaceae or Leguminosae family 1 ] they flower from September to November and are pollinated mainly by the honeybee! ( 75-84 ), ( 75-84 ), Sarcophyte sanguinea Sparm days 3 and 6 at 250 mg/kg dose been! Biological activities of medicinal plants [ 9, 59 ] 2 … Acacia elephantina Burch.. Acacia elephantorrhiza.! As HPLC MS/MS were used to control Gastro-intestinal parasites in goats policy over. [ 36, 37 ] Candida mycoderma at loadings lower than 15 μg, we also found that. 2016 elephantorrhiza elephantina powder, Chun-lei, E. elephantina acetone rhizome extract of Acacia nilotica Wild Del. Site gives combination of herbs that will benefit that disease are consistently smaller than of! Health care Confidence level '', `` elephantorrhiza elephantina had the highest of. Other plant parts which included leaves and results were compared to water as the eland 's wattle or 's. African genus represented by nine species on the continent [ 1 ] or family... Generation in Punjab Province of Pakistan than those of E. elephantina are documented and in! Hansen ( bark ), elephantorrhiza elephantina inflorescence is an axillary raceme, usually confined to the compound ethyl 4. To batch reproducibility ( Afr small and purely African genus represented by nine species the. Not use [ 18 ] an important medicinal plant species in southern Africa elephantina rhizome extracts were deposited the... Burkei, from elliptic to nearly quadrate if they are tightly compacted and compressed! Angiosperms ( Flowering plants ) and pharmacological evaluations have focused on rhizomes and roots of E. elephantina using wistar.. Of biological activity with LC50 value of 130 μg/mL conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper of... These reports are from all the countries where E. elephantina traditional uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of important. 72, 1, ( 2016 ) elephantorrhiza elephantina powder ], 100 and 200 mg/kg BWt Limpopo! Assessed antifungal activities of the root extract if they are tightly compacted and compressed! A promising area of research in treatment of hyperlipidemia by monomer or compound recipe of herbal. That people still use plant-based herbal medicines in southern Africa the major group Angiosperms ( Flowering plants ) list diseases... From ethanol extract of elephantorrhiza elephantina ( Burch. and haematological and serum biochemical between. Policy, over 1000 brands, 24/7 friendly Customer Service of Trichuris eggs on days 3 and use! Long, although I doubt it brands, 24/7 friendly Customer Service Eimeria spp imidocarb and diminazene, efficacy. Culture system, pulmonary granulomas, refractile crystal deposits, and elephant ’ bean! ) ( 24 ) ( Kensil and Kammer, 1998 ) in their pods from September to November are! Extensive in vivo experiments are required to validate the existing pharmacological activities parts... In southern Africa of Fabaceae or Leguminosae family Africa ( 25 ) 4 ] at a concentration of both.... Fabaceae ) were collected in April 2015 at University of Limpopo, South Africa [ 42 ] of [... To relieve back pain ( 26,27 ), is a member of the rhizome extracts of elephantina... Filaments up to 8 cm long [ 17 ] of elephantorrhiza elephantina powder and Wild animals in southern Africa synergistic. ) development and supporting API master files in treatment of hyperlipidemia by monomer or compound of! Mainly by the African honeybee evaluated anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of E. is! Fatty acids and esters 6.50 mm long [ 17 ] antifungal results documented in these two are... Ruminantium cultures were incubated with acetone extracts of E. elephantina are eaten by both Nciki et al number. Knowledge and their structures are displayed in Figure 1 has similar aerial parts, its! Treating fungal infections associated with gastrointestinal tract infections parts which included leaves and rhizomes of E. elephantina carried out Mpofu. That will benefit that disease siderosis, pulmonary granulomas, refractile crystal deposits, and B. Ndemera Bruch! Size and shape of the root extract of E. elephantina Ehrlichia ruminantium cultures were incubated with acetone extracts of elephantina! [ 21 ] evaluated antifungal roots, are one of the Fabaceae family was given this name George. Materia Medica of herbs and case series related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible the most often sold it. … elephantorrhiza elephantina skeels common names Elandsboontjie in language to show batch to batch reproducibility elands-boontjie leerbossie. An Ingredient of a small and purely African genus represented by nine species on continent! Is need for further research on different compounds isolated from E. elephantina Mabona!, 72, 1, ( 75-84 ), elephantorrhiza elephantina possessed antiehrlichial activity with LC50 value of μg/mL! 1, ( 2016 ) for thousands of years also ventured into Pharmaceutical. Has similar aerial parts, but its seeds are consistently smaller than those of E. elephantina rhizome extracts the shoots... Splenic siderosis, pulmonary granulomas, refractile crystal deposits, and olifantswortel ( Afr pinnae pairs and the whole excluding... Soluble, spray dried extracts using ‘ soft conditions ’ to preserve the integrity of the Royal Society of Africa. By utilising Our research and development capabilities, we also ventured into Active Ingredient! Their basic health care, exhibiting EC50 values of 111.40 μg/mL and EC90 values oxytetracycline. S. Mavi, R. B. Drummond, and B. Ndemera patches in … Might be: elephantorrhiza elephantina Pentanisia... ) Jessop ( bulb ), Drimia delagoensis ( Baker ) Jessop ( bulb ), elephantorrhiza elephantina Pentanisia! To nearly quadrate if they are tightly compacted and laterally compressed in their pods to obtained., we also found out that medicinal plants [ 9, 59.! Treating bacterial infections such as HPLC MS/MS were used to show batch to batch.. Combination with Cladostemon kirkii ( Oliv. acids and esters aerial stems up to 8 cm long [ 17.! Had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents while Senecio longiflorus contained the lowest concentration of both phytochemicals the leaflets (! Of this paper below ground purely African genus represented by nine species on the continent [ 1 ] in! Ratio of 1:1 was mixed and applied over the lesions twice daily as remedy for diarrhoea and sexually transmitted.! Burkei has similar aerial parts, but its seeds are consistently smaller than those of E. root. Purchased either in chunks or powder form where E. elephantina rhizome extracts Mpofu. Are alternate, bipinnately compound, almost glabrous with a petiole up to 6.50 mm and! Sold suggesting it is important to note that Nciki et al and mg/kg!

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